VOR Cone of Confusion

I recently got an email from a user of Nav Trainer asking what the red lines represent on the sides of the VOR station symbols.

Those red lines represent areas where the VOR signal is ambiguous and the VOR display is unreliable.

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Deciphering RNAV approach minimas

GPS and RNAV approach terminology can be very confusing since modern RNAV procedures usually accommodate more than one type of navigational equipment (such as basic GPS, WAAS, LAAS or multi-sensor FMS) on the same chart. With older types of approach procedures, the specific equipment required is stated in the chart title. For example, you could only fly a “VOR RWY XX” approach with VOR equipment, or an ILS approach with ILS equipment.

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Brief instrument approaches like a pro

There’s no one-fit-all method to perform an approach briefing. A commercial operator may have a specific way to do it. But if you don’t work for one, you need to develop your own approach briefing technique. The key is to set the aircraft and review all important information in advance, so the workload won’t overwhelm you.

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11 proven study techniques that make you a better pilot

Being a pilot requires constant learning and practice. Starting from your initial private pilot checkride through flight reviews to type ratings and airline training, these techniques will not only make the study process easier, they will make it more efficient. They will make you a better pilot.

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Holding pattern tutorial and trainer

Has this ever happened to you?

You receive a holding clearance from ATC, and only have a couple of minutes, sometimes only a few seconds, to choose the correct entry. By the time you’ve figured out what’s going on, you’ve already passed the fix and don’t know what to do next.

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C172S (SP) Skyhawk orientation

The Cessna 172 is the most popular general aviation training airplane. This document is a summary of technical information about the SP model of the aircraft.

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Engine inoperative principles in a twin airplane

One-engine-inoperative aerodynamics is one of the major areas students struggle with when first learning how to fly multiengine airplanes. In this article I will address the principles of flying a multi engine airplane when one of its engines fails.

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